Detailed Blockchain Guide in 2022 | What Is Blockchain Technology? How Does It Work?


What is Blockchain?

Blockchain is defined as a securely shared, decentralized master data ledger. Blockchain technology enables an aggregated select group of participants to share data. Blockchain cloud services allow transactional data from multiple sources to be easily collected, integrated, and shared. Data is split into shared blocks that are chained together with unique identifiers in the form of cryptographic hashes.


Blockchain provides data integrity with a single source of truth, eliminating data duplication and increasing security.


Fraud and data tampering is prevented in a blockchain system because data cannot be changed without the consent of the majority of the parties. Blockchain records can be shared but not changed. If someone tries to change the data, all participants will be alerted and find out who made the attempt.


Blockchain provides a permanent recording of transactions in a network. It is similar to a system database but uses a decentralized ledger instead of the traditional end-to-end, allowing each participant in the network to have their own copy of the ledger and be able to see all transactions. Each block is protected by an encrypted reference associated with the previous block, so it is quite difficult to attack or hack the system.


We can think of blockchain as a world where every contract, transaction, job, and payment is digitally recorded and signed in a way that is identified, verified, stored, and shared. Every single step of the blockchain is transparent and secure, as every change in this system requires consensus. This ensures a high level of reliability of the system and eliminates both risks and the need for intermediaries.


How does blockchain technology work?

Think of the blockchain as the historical record of transactions. Each block is "chained" in a row to the previous block and is irrevocably recorded in a peer-to-peer network. Cryptographic trust and assurance technology apply a unique identifier (or digital fingerprint) to each transaction.


Trust, accountability, transparency, and security are indispensable in the design of the chain. This allows many types of institutions and trading partners to access and share data. This phenomenon is called third-party, consensus-based trust.


All participants maintain an encrypted record of every transaction in a decentralized, highly scalable, and irreversibly durable recording mechanism. Blockchain does not require any overhead or middlemen. Having a decentralized, single source of truth reduces the cost of running reliable business interactions between parties that may not fully trust each other. In permission-based blockchains that most institutions use, participants are authorized to join the network, and each participant keeps an encrypted record of every transaction.


Any company or group of companies that need a secure, real-time, shareable log of transactions can benefit from this unique technology. Because not everything is stored in one location, better security and accessibility is achieved without a central point of vulnerability.


To learn more about blockchain, its underlying technology, and use cases, here are some key definitions.


Decentralized trust:

The main reason why institutions use blockchain technology instead of other data warehouses is to provide data integrity guarantees without relying on a central authority. This is called decentralized trust through trusted data.


Blockchain blocks:

The name blockchain comes from the fact that data is stored in blocks, and each block is linked to the previous block, forming a chain-like structure. With blockchain technology, you can only add new blocks to a blockchain. You cannot modify or delete any block once it has been added to the blockchain.


Consensus algorithms:

Algorithms that enforce rules within a blockchain system. After the participating parties set the rules for the blockchain, the consensus algorithm ensures that these rules are followed.


Blockchain nodes:

Blockchain data blocks are stored in nodes, which are storage units that keep data synchronized or updated. Any node can quickly determine if any block has changed after it has been added. When a new, full node joins the blockchain network, it downloads a copy of all the blocks currently on the chain. Once the new node is in sync with other nodes and has the latest blockchain version, it can receive any new blocks like any other node.


Three types of blockchain

Public blockchain.

A public or permissionless blockchain network is a network that anyone can join without restrictions. Most cryptocurrencies operate on a public blockchain governed by rules or consensus algorithms.


Trace-based or private blockchain.

Private or permission-based blockchain allows institutions to set controls over who can access blockchain data. Only authorized users can access certain datasets. Oracle Blockchain Platform is a permission-based blockchain.


Federated or consortium blockchain.

A blockchain network in which a preselected set of nodes or a preselected number of stakeholders closely control the consensus process (mining process).


Advantages of blockchain: business value

The use of blockchain technology is expected to increase significantly over the next few years. This game-changing technology is considered both innovative and disruptive because blockchain will replace existing business processes with streamlined efficiency, reliability, and security.


Blockchain technology offers certain business benefits that help businesses in the following ways:


Establishes trust between the parties; enables collaboration by providing reliable, shared data


Eliminates siled data; integrates data into a system through a distributed ledger shared within a network accessible to allowed parties

Offers a high level of security for data

Reduces the need for third-party agents

Creates real-time, tamper-evident records; can be shared among all participants

Allows participants to ensure the authenticity and integrity of products placed in the trade stream

Provides seamless tracking of goods and services throughout the supply chain

Ensures food safety with Oracle Blockchain Platform


Blockchain technology is not suitable for every use case and business model. Therefore, before using the blockchain, it should be checked whether it complies with the requirements. For example, there is no need to use blockchain if the data to be kept will not be created and read by more than one actor. However, since the blockchain provides the distribution of trust between the parties, there is no need for a trust mechanism between the parties that will process/use the data, even if there is no need for the blockchain. Blockchain technology would not be needed if there is no need for a public auditing mechanism and changing records is not critical.


If blockchain technology is desired to be used after the above decisive criteria, the following benefits can be provided in the system to be used:

Since the trust mechanism is not based on individuals or institutions, it is based on multiple nodes in a distributed structure and the difficulty of the underlying mathematical operations.


Depending on the structure of the blockchain, the privacy of the users can be fully ensured in the system to be established.

By eliminating the need for a centralized system, a system that manages itself is obtained.

The system can be created and maintained not by one or a few authorities, but by many small users.


The Future of Blockchain Technology

Although the blockchain technology that constitutes the Bitcoin infrastructure is a promising technology, there are steps that need to be taken for this technology to reach full maturity. However, according to a large-scale report by Switzerland-based Credit Suisse, blockchain is used in many areas, not just in digital currencies or financial services. According to a survey by the World Economic Forum, 58% of executives estimate that 10% of global Gross National Production will “be on blockchain before 2025”. This year is stated as the year of reaching maturity according to the report. Currently, this technology is in between the prototype and experimental stages.


They expect certain products developed by market watchers in 2018 to become frequently mentioned, vendors, and new models to emerge. In 2017, many blockchain partnerships were made. In financial services, for example, banks have launched joint ventures to test blockchain. In December, the UBS agency signed agreements with a number of banks in Europe to test blockchain technology. Instead of relying on a third party or organization to review their data, they will rely on blockchain technology for the accuracy of their data. According to this bank, blockchain technology will benefit not only financial services but also other areas. It was stated by Credit Suisse that other companies operating in many fields such as consumer products and real-world applications such as manufacturing implemented blockchain solutions in 2017. It was also stated by this bank that 2018 will be a critical year for blockchain technology.


The general application areas of blockchain are:




Money Transfers

Creating and Storing Valuable Documents

E-Commerce and Payments

Stocks and Exchanges


Person-to-Person Borrowing and Distributed Loan Systems

Donation Systems and Micropayments

Cloud Computing and Secure Cloud Storage


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